**Encryption** is a procedure that encodes a communication or file so that it can be only be read by specific people. **Encryption** uses an algorithm to scramble, or **encrypt**, data and then uses a key for the receiver to unscramble, or decrypt, the information (decryptinfo).

**Symmetric encryption**

3DES is an encryption cipher that was derived from the original Data Encryption Standard (DES) developed by IBM in the early 1970s and adopted by NIST. It improves upon the earlier block cipher DES and brings various benefits, such as its ease of implementation in hardware and software and its widespread support among cryptographic libraries and protocols. Symmetric-key block cipher (or Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA or Triple DEA), which applies the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher algorithm three times to each data block.

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric block cipher selected by the U.S. government to guard confidential information. AES is applied in software and hardware throughout the world to encrypt sensitive data and decryption (also known as Rijndael).

Blowfish is a symmetric-key block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier. Prominent features of the design include key-dependent S-boxes and a highly complex key schedule. It takes a variable-length key, from 32 bits to 448 bits, making it ideal for both domestic and exportable use. Blowfish is unpatented and license-free, and is available free for all uses.

**Asymmetric encryption**

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is one of the first practical public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission. In RSA, this asymmetry is based on the practical difficulty of factoring the product of two large prime numbers, the factoring problem.

**Transform Encryption**

Transform Encryption (aka Proxy Re-Encryption) –

Transform encryption uses three mathematically associated keys: one to encrypt plaintext to a receiver, a second to decrypt the ciphertext, and a third to transform ciphertext encrypted to one receiver so it can be decrypted by a other recipient.

**Hash functions**

The MD5 message-digest algorithm is widely used hash function producing a 128-bit hash value. MD5 was initially designed to be used as a cryptographic hash purpose, but it has been initiate to suffer from extensive vulnerabilities. It can still be used as a checksum to prove data integrity, but only against accidental corruption.

Secure Hash Algorithm 1 is Cryptographic hash function designed by the NSA. SHA-1 produces a 160-bit hash value known as a message digest. SHA-1 is no longer considered secure against well-funded adversaries. A hash function such as SHA-1 is used to calculate an alphanumeric string that helps as the cryptographic representation of a file or a piece of data and can serve as a digital signature. It is supposed to be unique and non-reversible.

SHA2 – Secure hash Algorithm 2 family consists of six hash functions with digests (hash values) that are 224, 256, 384 or 512 bits: SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512, SHA-512/224, SHA-512/256 designed by the NSA. SHA-256 and SHA-512 are novel hash functions calculated with 32-bit and 64-bit words, respectively. They use dissimilar shift amounts and additive constants, but their structures are otherwise virtually identical, opposing only in the number of rounds.

**Top 14 Books to learn Cryptography**

- A Graduate Course in Applied Cryptography – The book covers many constructions for different tasks in cryptography.
- An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography – Introduction to modern cryptography.
- Crypto101 – Crypto 101 is an introductory course on cryptography.
- Cryptography Engineering – Learn to build cryptographic protocols that work in the real world.
- Handbook of Applied Cryptography – This book is intended as a reference for professional cryptographers.
- Introduction to Modern Cryptography – Introductory-level treatment of cryptography written from a modern, computer science perspective.
- OpenSSL Cookbook – The book about OpenSSL.
- Practical Cryptography for Developers – Developer-friendly book on modern cryptography (hashes, MAC codes, symmetric and asymmetric ciphers, key exchange, elliptic curves, digital signatures) with lots of code examples.
- Real World Cryptography – This book teaches you applied cryptographic techniques to understand and apply security at every level of your systems and applications.
- Security Engineering – There is an extraordinary textbook written by Ross Anderson, professor of computer security at University of Cambridge.
- Serious Cryptography – A Practical Introduction to Modern Encryption by Jean-Philippe Aumasson.
- The Code Book – This book is a digest of the history of cryptography, covering both ancient times, and newer cryptography methods. There are exercises at the end and the solution of those was rewarded with $10.000.
- The Cryptoparty Handbook – This book provides a comprehensive guide to the various topics of the computer and internet security.
- Understanding Cryptography – Often overlooked, this book is a boon for beginners to the field. It contains plenty of exercises at the end of each chapter, aimed at reinforcing concepts and cementing ideas.

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